Articles Australian Education resources for international students including; Admissions, International Education, Study English Programs, MBA, Student Life, Travel, Study in australia, and free email accounts via australia mail /Resources/Articles/ Sat, 06 May 2017 05:29:13 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb Get More with Brisbane North Institute of TAFE /Resources/get-more-with-brisbane-north-institute-of-tafe.html /Resources/get-more-with-brisbane-north-institute-of-tafe.html In some cases, less can be more. However, other times, more really is more. Such is the case with Brisbane North Institute of TAFE (BNIT). This powerhouse school serves nearly 50,000 students each year. Based in Queensland, BNIT has seven campuses and numerous study options that allow all individuals to get the education they need in a way that fits their lifestyle.

about brisbane north institute of tafe

More Learning Options

BNIT is a large organisation, with learning options that are catered to appeal to students from all walks of life.

On Campus Courses: With seven campuses, BNIT clearly can provide educational opportunities for many people in Queensland. Students can attend conventional classes, which have access to BNIT's high quality facilities.
Brisbane North Institute Campus
Remote Learning Options: More students are pursuing an education while continuing to attend to other responsibilities. Because of this, BNIT has numerous remote learning opportunities, so students can complete the coursework on their schedule. BNIT also has an open learning system for the ultimate customised learning experience.

Special Seminars: BNIT also provides a number of special seminars, focused on relevant themes. These seminars often provide specialised knowledge and are popular with companies who utilise these seminars to disseminate pertinent information for employee benefit.

More Professional and Educational Partnerships

BNIT not only empowers students with high quality curriculum, but it also offers students the best connections of any university in Australia.

Secondary Schools: BNIT works with a number of local secondary schools in order to provide students with clear career goals more specific training for their future. These students can take a number of vocational courses to get a head start on their professional work after graduation.

Other Universities: BNIT values the experiences and education of all applicants. To this end, BNIT uses a Recognition of Prior Learning process in which any applicant's previous educational experiences are carefully ascertained. This process helps avoid duplicate training, no matter where the previous education may have been gained.
Brisbane North Institute international students learning english
International Schools: BNIT seeks to appeal to students both in Australia and from around the world. To accomplish this, BNIT has international partnerships with a variety of schools, working to provide study abroad and English Learning options for international students.

Local Businesses: Many local businesses work with BNIT to provide continued learning for their employees. This can include additional certifications and degrees for specific workers or specialised training sessions to cater to broader needs.

More Program Options

The real power of BNIT still lies in its diversity of coursework. Students can select from any number of program types and can study a vast variety of subjects in order to create an education that is perfectly suited to their needs.

Degree Programs: BNIT offers a full range of associate degrees, bachelor degrees, and other graduate level programs. Students can choose coursework from areas such as business, education, finance, human resources, sales, and more.
brisbane north institute of tafe international students

Certificate Programs: These shorter programs are designed for more focused career advancement and reflect any number of disciplines, including hospitality and business.

Vocational Training: BNIT also has a number of vocational training programs, often focused in areas such as creative industry or horticulture.

Other study areas include: animal science, environment, government, information technology, literacy, logistics and more.

Overall, the programs, staff, and facilities at BNIT are a world class option for anyone looking to further their education in Australia.







For further information:

CRICOS Provider No. 02444M
Phone: +617 3259 9221
Fax: +617 3259 9238

]]> (Administrator) Articles Wed, 18 Nov 2009 01:10:31 +0000
Gordon Institute Of Tafe, Geelong, Australia /Resources/gordon-institute-of-tafe-geelong-australia.html /Resources/gordon-institute-of-tafe-geelong-australia.html The Gordon Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) is an Australian government educational institute. Founded in 1887, the Gordon Institute has been providing quality education and training programs, with its first international students enrolling during the 1930’s. Offering over 220 nationally recognised courses, today the Gordon Institute has over 30,000 annual enrolments across its three Campuses.

gordon institute of tafe sky view

The Gordon Institute of TAFE offers English Language course and has a wide range of programs providing training at the Certificate, Diploma, Advanced Diploma and Degree levels in:

•    Art, Design & Music
•    Building & Construction
•    Business & Financial Studies
•    Engineering
•    Hairdressing, Beauty & Fashion
•    Hospitality, Cookery & Patisserie
•    Information Technology & Computer Studies
•    Nursing & Community Services
•    Science & Environmental Studies
•    Tourism, Sport & Recreation

gordon institute of tafe cooking classes

hairdressing at gordon institue

Gordon Institute of TAFE is Located in Geelong on the southwest coast of the state of Victoria, the Gordon is the first choice in Australian education for many local and international students. All Certificates, Diplomas and

Advanced Diplomas require:

• Successful completion of Year 12 or its equivalent; or successful completion of Year 11 or its equivalent (for some certificate level courses); or mature aged applicants over the age of 20 who have relevant work experience and evidence of the English Language.

Cultural and Welfare Support

Students receive continuing cultural and welfare support throughout their stay in the University. Cultural activities are arranged which students can participate in and contribute to. Students also receive advice and assistance from experienced and qualified staff in relation to financial and personal welfare matters, as well as visa, health insurance and general administrative matters.

gordon institute of tafe campus

Social Activities Program

An ongoing social activities program runs throughout each semester and provides opportunities for students to enjoy a range of activities outside study. We have many activities available including monthly bus trips to Melbourne's famous Victoria Market, weekly Pizza and Film Nights, day trips to the Great Ocean Road and Phillip Island and a 3 day stay in the Grampians National Park.

All Degree programs require:

• Successful completion of Year 12 or its equivalent; or
• Successful completion of Year 11 or its equivalent plus relevant employment experience.
• evidence of English Language ability
• IELTS score of 6.0
• TOEFL score of 577
• Evidence that English is the language of instruction in previous studies


gordon institute students studying english

The Gordon Institute English Language Unit is a highly regarded provider of English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) and located at the Gordon’s City Campus, which is conveniently situated only 100 metres from the Geelong Railway Station and local bus stops. Specialising in all levels of English language study, the unit’s qualified and experienced staff can assist students to achieve the level of English they require for entry into the Gordon’s range of programs.


gordon institute of tafe building

The Gordon Institute provides International students with the
following services:

• Accommodation arrangement
• Airport welcome and transfer
• Orientation
• Health cover arrangement
• Academic and personal counselling
• Student Visa assistance
• English language and learning skills support
• Careers advice and resume assistance
• Library and internet facilities
• Student activities


For further information:

Phone: + 61 3 5225 0920


]]> (Administrator) Articles Tue, 10 Nov 2009 00:36:27 +0000
La Trobe University /Resources/la-trobe-university.html /Resources/la-trobe-university.html La Trobe University is a major Australian institution and has a worldwide reputation for academic excellence and innovation. La Trobe’s courses are highly respected by employers and academic institutions internationally. La Trobe University was ranked among Victoria’s top 3 Universities in 2007 by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Index.

skyview of la trobe university

La Trobe University has more than 26,500 students, including 4,900 international students from over 90 countries, and 2,700 staff. The University offers an exceptional student-to-staff ratio, ensuring students receive the academic support they need to succeed. It also provides a safe and supportive environment for all international students.

La Trobe University is renowned for its support services for international students, including assistance with applications, visas, academic and English language skills, as well as a free airport or railway reception service and temporary accommodation assistance.


Our students enjoy superb facilities including an outstanding academic library, a central student meeting place (the “Agora”), ICT services, multimedia facilities, residential colleges, a sports and leisure centre, food and retail outlets, banking, postal and medical services, careers and counselling services, language and academic skills assistance and childcare facilities. The campus is also easily accessible by public transport or car.

At La Trobe there are more than 50 clubs and societies that cater to a range of sport, recreational, academic, social and cultural pursuits. Students can also choose to join any number of special interest groups or professional associations. Each campus has extensive sporting facilities from tennis courts to swimming pools, rock climbing, basketball, table tennis and indoor soccer.

la trobe student rock climbing

We welcome you to La Trobe University - the complete Australian university experience.


“The practical component of my course is also very interesting and allows you to get more involved with what you are studying. The lecturers are also very willing to help you if you are having any problems.”
Alex Baker (Bachelor of Biomedical Science), South Africa

“The highlight of my time at La Trobe University is the international cultural exchange experience that I’ve benefited here. The number of good friends I’ve made with fellow international students during the International Welcome Festival was simply amazing.”
Shasha Lai (Bachelor of Accounting), Malaysia

““I really enjoy attending seminars and conferences and most of all the opportunity they give me to interact with lecturers and mentors from the industry. I like to turn every challenge into an opportunity.”
Abhishek Awasthi (Master of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics), India

For more testimonials check out La Trobe Times ( our fortnightly online newspaper or go online to La Trobe International (

]]> (Administrator) Articles Fri, 09 Oct 2009 23:38:52 +0000
The University of Newcastle, Australia – Out to Achieve /Resources/the-university-of-newcastle-australia-out-to-achieve.html /Resources/the-university-of-newcastle-australia-out-to-achieve.html The University of Newcastle is a progressive, dynamic institution recognised for research achievement, teaching innovation and access to higher education for disadvantaged groups. Our reputation as a higher education institution of distinction is built on the achievements of many members of the University’s community.

beautiful university of newcastle campus

The University’s Australian campuses are located at Callaghan – 12 kilometres from the Newcastle City Centre; in a city precinct in the Newcastle CBD; on the Central Coast halfway between Sydney and Newcastle; at Port Macquarie on the New South Wales Mid-North Coast, three hours drive north of Newcastle, as well as offering ELICOS and Postgraduate Finance and Business programs through the newly established presence in the Sydney CBD. The University also has a campus in Singapore.


•    9th in Australia for publicly funded research
•    Top 400 in the world (375th) and 61st university in the Asia-Pacific Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking 2008
•    One of the world’s top 100 universities for engineering/technology and computer sciences Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings by field 2007

Recent highlights include:

the university of newcastle building• a strongly positive report from the Australian Universities Quality Agency that recognised the University as a vibrant and well-managed institution with enthusiastic students and staff

• growing demand to study at the University with a record enrolment in 2008 of 30,340 students

• recognition for our academic staff with seven Citations for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, three Quality Teaching Awards from the State of New South Wales, eight externally funded research fellowships and the appointment of an additional Laureate Professor

• continued research funding success with almost $25 million in new project funding from the Australian Research Council and National Health and Medical Research Council


• expanded work-based learning opportunities for our students, including sending 40 Bachelor of Communication students for work experience at the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics. Only ten universities worldwide were invited to send students to work as ‘Flash Reporters’ to the 2008 games

• national success for our Chamber Choir as winners of Channel 7’s Battle of the Choirs

• greater collaboration and engagement with our communities through a wide range of public lectures, conferences and community-based projects particularly relating to Indigenous and environmental issues

• establishment of the University Committee on Environmental Sustainability and confirmation of the University as a leader in the Australian higher education sector in sustainable development.

• In 2008, the University was privileged to be granted approval to establish a Confucius Institute in partnership with Huazhong Normal University. It is the last Institute to be approved and the only one in a regional location in Australia. The bid received the full support of the Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd. The Confucius Institute will increase Newcastle’s knowledge and understanding of China – its history, culture and language. It will also strengthen the University’s relationship with China around practical teaching, research and intercultural issues.

• establishment of a presence in Sydney in 2009, with the opening of the University of Newcastle in Sydney, offering postgraduate programs in the areas of Finance and Business, as well as ELICOS programs

newcastle skyview

Over our history of more than 40 years, the University of Newcastle has been characterised as a university of distinction. Our reputation is shaped by internationally recognised strength in research and an enduring commitment to quality teaching and learning, environmental sustainability, and equity and diversity.

A determined campaign by Hunter residents was the driving force behind the creation of the University. In the early 1950s, Newcastle University College was established on a technical college site at Tighes Hill under the authority of the then University of Technology New South Wales (now the University of New South Wales). Just five full-time students were enrolled when classes began and study concentrated on science, mathematics and engineering.

Over the next 10 years, the growth in student numbers and the community’s desire for a university to call its own led to the University becoming an autonomous institution.

callaghan students

Today some 30,000 students are enrolled in programs across five faculties. Over 85 undergraduate programs are on offer and the range of postgraduate study options is continually growing.

The University has matured from a locally-focused institution to one that is global in its outlook. Our graduates are sought-after by employers at home and overseas. Working with communities locally and internationally, the University strives to achieve – creating opportunities, delivering results and raising the bar across every field.

A recent audit by the Australian Universities Quality Agency found the University to be a vibrant and well-managed institution. The University’s energy management is in the top tier in the sector and we are one of the lowest consumers of energy of all Australian universities.

Through the commitment of our staff, students, local communities and industry partners, the University is well positioned for further growth and success.

the university of newcastle
For more information about the University of Newcastle visit

]]> (Administrator) Articles Wed, 07 Oct 2009 19:24:06 +0000
William Angliss Institute /Resources/william-angliss-institute.html /Resources/william-angliss-institute.html  
As the government “Specialist Centre for Tourism, Hospitality and Culinary Arts” William Angliss Institute has been keeping people out of desk jobs for over 70 years. Established in 1940, the Institute is a government registered training organisation that has over 23,000 enrolments, including 1200 international students, each year at the main campus in Melbourne, Australia. Our expert staff work closely with industry, providing innovative training solutions to meet the needs of today’s global workforce. In our exceptional, world class facilities on campus we offer high quality vocational or degree courses in the tourism, travel, hotel management, resorts and culinary fields.

Courses at William Angliss Institute include:

william angliss hospitality

• Bachelor of Tourism and Hospitality Management

• Bachelor of Culinary Management

• Hotel and Event Internships

• Tourism, Ecotourism and Retail Travel Sales

• Hospitality and Business

• Commercial Cookery and Patisserie

• Events

• Resort Management (Spa, Dive, Water Recreation)

• Food Science and Technology

• Confectionery Manufacturing

Looking for a dream career full of surprises? An exciting, fast paced, dynamic, challenging profession that could take you to exotic locations all around the world? Look no further than William Angliss Institute in Melbourne, Australia to develop the skills and gain the experience to realise your dreams. William Angliss Institute is Australia’s only Government endorsed specialist centre for hospitality, tourism and culinary arts, delivering courses from certificate level through to bachelor degrees. A possible career as a Hotel or Resort Manager, Restaurant Owner, Head Chef, Event Organiser, Travel Agent, Patissier or Tour Guide could be a reality if you enroll at William Angliss Institute.


 Specialist Teachers
 william angliss teacher

William Angliss Institute employs over 272 qualified, industry experienced academic staff. In addition, industry experts are called upon to provide guest lectures.
Specialist Facilities

Modern, industry standard training facilities, with the latest in educational technology include:

william angliss institute campus

• More than 60 classrooms spread over six buildings
• Computer laboratories with more than 250 computer terminals
• 12 training kitchens
• Four training bakeries
• Research and development kitchen
• Three training restaurants open to the public
• Wine Sensory Evaluation Centre
• Coffee Academy
• Travel ticketing computer reservation and information systems
• Three accommodation training units
• Three food technology laboratories and a confectionery training centre
• Hotel reservation systems


International Success with the William Angliss Institute

william angliss patisserie

There are 1,110 international students enrolled at the Melbourne campus of the William Angliss Institute (WAI). These students represent 50 countries, and there are an additional 1,000 students who participate at the four offshore joint campuses in China.

Clearly, the WAI has international appeal. In fact, the international branch of the WAI is a large factor in the WAI's total profits and re-investment strategies, creating $13 million of its total $45 million revenue.

One reason for the WAI's popularity is its customized solutions for the tourism and hospitality sector. The WAI is recognized worldwide as a leader in human resource development, providing solutions for partners at the local, national, international, and governmental levels.

Some customized solutions include:
• Relevant certification and employment programs
• Training systems for vocational goals
• Hotel preparation and stimulus
• Analysis of training needs
• Customized curriculum development
• Development of learning resources
• Tourism professional development programs
• Specialized skills auditing

The William Angliss Institute stands out with powerful professional partnerships, innovative training programs, customized solutions, and strong international connections. Add these attributes to its foolproof risk management approach and diversification strategy, and it is clear why the WAI leads in the tourism and hospitality industry.


Markus Berghofen

markus berghofen
Advanced Diploma of Hospitality (Germany) ‘What I love about my course is that we meet so many people from all over the world. You learn a lot from many different areas in hospitality and the teachers are highly skilled and friendly.’

Nadia Hermenegildo

nadia hermenegildo
Cert III in Hospitality (Commercial Cookery) (Peru) ‘The course is stimulating and I really enjoy the challenge of studying in English. I get to cook almost every day and I practice a lot.’

Archan Chan

archan chan
Bachelor of Culinary Management (China) ‘My professor in Hong Kong recommended this course to me. I am passionate about culinary arts and one day I want to run my own restaurant.’


For further information:
Phone: +61 3 9606 2169

]]> (Administrator) Articles Thu, 01 Oct 2009 22:16:43 +0000
Government To Launch The First Phase Of ISP Filtering /Resources/government-to-launch-the-first-phase-of-isp-filtering.html /Resources/government-to-launch-the-first-phase-of-isp-filtering.html  

senator stephen discussing ISP filteringSenator Stephen who is the Minister for the Digital Economy announced today that the Australians Government will implement the first phase of the Internet Service Provider (ISP). The first stage will include filtering Live Pilot witch includes six ISPs.




The first round of filtering Pilot will include:
• Primus Telecommunications
• Tech 2U
• Web Shield
• OMNI Connect
• Net Force
• Highway1

"The government is aware of technical problems that could occur from the ISP filtering and this is the reason for testing out the claims with a pilot”

Porn has become widespread across the internet and can be harmful for young children and teens viewing X rated content. ISP Filtering will make it a lot harder for people of all ages to access Mature X rated websites. As their be many people who dislike this idea of regulation on porn the Australian Government has its interest in protecting children and young teens from harmful content.teenage boys surfing the internet

Customers of the listed ISPs that will be part of the initial test Pilot will have the option if they want to be part of the first Test Filtering Pilot. For the long-term the plan is to have a stationed content filter combined with an optional adult filter. The test pilot will launch when the ISP equipment is in place (no scheduled date thus far).

filtering ISPThe first test trail will take place for at least six weeks and will focus on the following:
• Technical solutions
• Difficultly of circumvention
• Effects of Internet Speed
• Effects of User experience
• User feedback
• Content filtering
• Overall results

Below are some of the concerns some have brought to attention regarding ISP filtering:
• There will be ways to bypass filtering
• Filtering will result in slowing down the internet speed
• Telstra stated that they will not be taking part
• Will the government regulate file sharing traffic

Conducting the live pilot will show key evidence and the effectiveness of ISP online filtering. After the test pilot the Australian government will use the evidence and feedback to help implement a long term filtering plan.
children viewing mature content

]]> (Administrator) Articles Fri, 13 Feb 2009 21:17:56 +0000
Australia Is Planning To Roll Out A $42 Billion Dollar Stimulus Package /Resources/australia-is-planning-to-roll-out-a-42-billion-dollar-stimulus-package.html /Resources/australia-is-planning-to-roll-out-a-42-billion-dollar-stimulus-package.html announcing the stimulus packageAustralia Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced that they will be handing out an A$42 billion stimulus package in order to counteract the downturn in Australia’s economy. A$42 billion Australian dollars is equivalent to $26 billion American dollars in spending.


Note:  this will put Australia’s budget in the red zone. Australia has not been in the budget red zone sine the last decade. Australia’s red zone budget will hit a A$22.5 billion deficit witch will be a 1.9% of gross domestic product.

 "Nobody enjoys being in a deficit," Rudd told reporters. "This is not a question of choice. This is what we are required to do." Sitting back and doing nothing would result in more job losses”.

 The details and desired effects for spending the A$42 billion are listed below:

•    Money to be spread over the next four years
•    Thousands of new homes and school facilities
•    Offering householders with environmentally friendly free roof insulation
•    Supporting around 90,000 jobs with the hope of creating new job positions
•    Save thousands of existing jobs
•    Increasing the economic growth by one half to 1% by the end of the fiscal year

australian economy
Rudd said "There is no guarantee of success, but we will throw everything at this because we believe it is important for confidence and jobs that we do so."

Last year Australia rolled out a stimulus package worth A$10.4 billion to react to the world’s financial downturn. Australia thought that this stimulus package should be enough to shield the Australian economy from the rest of the world, but A$10.4 billion was not enough and showed to be more of a short term halt for Australia’s economy.

Following the announcement Australia’s central bank cut the cash rate to one full point to 3.25%. This is the lowest rate Australia has seen in the last two decades
By providing free ceiling insulation to 2.7 million Australian homes, the government plans to reduce household power bills as well as Australia's greenhouse gas emissions.

australian government
Going green and providing free ceiling insulation to more then 2.7 Australian homes would reduce household power bills and also help the environment by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions.


Australians will be encouraged to spend money as a little more then half of Australia’s population of 21 million will be eligible for a A$950 tax bonus or grant.

All the spending will need to be approved by parliament. The legislation will be presented to the Parliament later this week.

The Australian government this Tuesday forecasted a 7% of Australian that will be out of jobs by 2010. This will be a heavy increase of the current unemployed Australians of 4.5%.

Last year the international Monetary Fund said that they predict Australia will not hit a recession status by 2009. This was based on a number of factors one being that Australia has a resource-based economy. Unfortunately last week they said tat Australia’s economy will most likely reach 0.2% witch would send Australia in a recession for the first time since 1991.

australian dollar

]]> (Administrator) Articles Thu, 05 Feb 2009 03:12:04 +0000
Roman Super Sport /Resources/roman-super-sport.html /Resources/roman-super-sport.html
First Blood

The Romans believed they inherited the idea of gladiatorial contests from the Etruscans, who dominated Italy before Rome's rise. There is, however, no archaeological evidence that the Etruscans did any such thing.

On the other hand, the Roman origin of the gladiator--from the Latin gladius, or "sword"--is well documented. In 264 BC, the sons of Junius Brutus Pera honored their father at his funeral by holding a contest featuring three pairs of gladiators. Rome fell sword-over-shields in love with the martial display, and for the next five centuries, gladiators commanded more and more attention.

We Who Are About to Die

The majority of gladiators--condemned criminals, prisoners of war, slaves--had no choice in the matter. By law, such people could be killed for virtually any reason, or compelled to give up their lives for sport. Yet many free Romans chose to become gladiators, too. You just had to swear an oath agreeing to be branded, chained, stabbed, and abused mercilessly against your will.

Why gladiate yourself like that? Maybe for the money (the winning gladiator often got a cash prize) or for the food (three square meals could be hard to scrounge). Or maybe for the girls, as aristocratic women were rumored to relieve their boredom by testing famous gladiators' prowess. No doubt many fought simply because they liked it. Rome was a militaristic society in which death and violence were always near at hand. Gladiators embodied the courage, strength, and military skill at the heart of Rome's rule.

Cue the "Rocky" Music

Gladiators were, in fact, good with a sword. A new gladiator would be sent to school, where he (or she--female gladiators were a rare but popular attraction) would be carefully trained in the arts of war. Gladiators were, after all, in the entertainment business, and a well-trained gladiator not only provided a better show, but was also more likely to live to wow them another day.

As a gladiator, you could expect to fight two or three times per year. The rest of the time, you trained (not unlike boxers today). By the time you made it into the arena, you'd be well nourished, in peak physical condition, and ready to fight.

Someone Call PETA

Gladiatorial games typically consisted of three acts. In the morning, you could see a "hunt" (venatio), featuring fabulous and fearsome beasts from throughout the land. Lions, tigers, bears, elephants, ostriches, and nearly anything else would be paraded through the arena--and then killed by men or animals. The displays involved so many animals that some species simply disappeared from the empire.

The second act began around lunch, when condemned criminals were executed. Depending on the show, they might be tied to posts and savaged by animals starved for food, or they might be forced to fight one another until only one man stood. No one knows whether the poor sap who survived won his freedom or merely delayed his fate.

Speed vs. Power

Afternoon and evening brought the main event: gladiators. Different types of gladiator, distinguished by their armor and weapons, matched up against other types. The lightly armed retiarius ("net man"), who wore no armor and fought with just a net and trident, might match his speed against the slower but more thoroughly armed secutor ("pursuer"), while the "Thracian," who wore a small, round buckler and carried a curved dagger, might face off against the murmillo, with a helmet, sword, and shield.

There were many other gladiator types, including the andabatae who fought blindfolded, the essedarii who fought from chariots, the hoplomachi who fought in full battle gear, and the laquearii who tried to lasso their opponents. New types arose as Rome expanded into new territories and brought home new kinds of prisoners of war, who would then be forced to fight in their native style.

The Mercy of the Mob

Some fights were purely for show, but most gladiators fought in deadly earnest. When a fighter knew he had been beaten, he would hold up his hand to signal surrender. The aristocrat presiding at the festivities would then--taking his cues from the crowd--"give the thumb," signaling whether the victor should finish his opponent off (perhaps using the modern thumbs up/thumbs down, but no one knows for sure).

If the loser had fought well, he might be allowed to live. But this hope depended on the mercy of a howling mob. By one estimate, the average gladiator's career spanned just ten matches. Few lived long enough to retire. Most were killed, their bodies dumped in a pit and their arms and armor handed down to the gladiators who took their place.

Not Very Christian

Gladiatorial contests initially took off in Rome because they were politically expedient. Roman senators and emperors could win popular backing by entertaining the masses with fascinating and bloody attractions. Yet eventually, Christianity won Rome over, and the gladiator came under increasing attack.

Constantine, the first emperor to embrace Christianity, tried to abolish the contests in 325, but gladiators, he found, die hard. It took 80 years (and another emperor: Honorius) before gladiatorial contests were finally prohibited in 404. Gladiators may have continued to fight unofficially for another
]]> (Administrator) Articles Mon, 01 Dec 2008 00:49:55 +0000
The Bacterial Zoo on You /Resources/the-bacterial-zoo-on-you.html /Resources/the-bacterial-zoo-on-you.html
Friends, your skin is your largest organ, the boundary between you and the world, and a key part of what makes you who you are. But, despite what you may think, you're not the only one who lives in it.

In fact, according to a new study, your skin is a microbial zoo--home to perhaps 250 species of bacteria. Researchers discovered the full extent of this microscopic menagerie in what they described as "essentially the first molecular study of the skin" and its microbial inhabitants. No need to reach for the antibacterial soap, though. Most of your bacterial borders are harmless, and some are downright helpful.

The Non-Enemy Within

Surprised? Don't be. Bacteria turn up everywhere life does, and some places most life doesn't--from the darkest depths of the ocean to the insides of your intestines. And though the unicellular organisms are best known for causing diseases, that isn't quite fair. A few bad bugs actually give countless benign--and even beneficial--bacteria a bad rap.

"Without good bacteria," says one of the study's authors, "the body could not survive." Says another, "Our microbes are actually, in essence, a part of our body." Hard to believe? Consider this: the bacteria inside your body outnumber your own cells 10 to 1, no matter how much you scrub. Your 10 to 100 trillion cells are, on average, vastly larger than the 100 trillion to 1 quadrillion bacteria that call you home, but still.

Even familiar infection-causing bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (pictured above) don't normally cause trouble. Microbiologists say around 25 percent of the population currently carries staph, but most people don't get sick from it. Bacteria can and do cause nasty infections and dangerous diseases, but that's hardly their defining property.

Bacterial Basics

So, what is their defining property? Think back to Biology 101. One of the most basic divisions in biology is the one between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Basically, a eukaryotic cell includes a nucleus that holds its DNA. A prokaryotic cell has no nucleus.

Animals, plants, and fungi are built of eukaryotic cells. Most prokaryotes, on the other hand, are unicellular organisms. And bacteria are the signature prokaryotes. In fact, "bacteria" and "prokaryote" were once nearly synonymous, until enterprising biologists identified a different class of prokaryotes called "archaea."

Still, bacteria represent one of the major branches on the tree of life. Microbiologists estimate that there are 5 nonillion different bacteria species. Nonillion? Picture a 5 with 30 zeroes after it. Maybe we're the ones infesting their world.]]> (Administrator) Articles Mon, 01 Dec 2008 00:48:52 +0000
7 Wonders of the World /Resources/7-wonders-of-the-world.html /Resources/7-wonders-of-the-world.html
Only one of the "Seven Wonders of the World" still exists: Egypt's Pyramids at Giza. The other ancient wonders are long gone, their glories all broken by the Earth and lost to time.

Now, Egyptian officials seem worried about losing their wonder, too. Not because the pyramids are in danger of crumbling--they've stood tall for 46 centuries--but because there's a move afoot to name the "New Seven Wonders" of the world, and the pyramids are only one of 21 finalists being put to a worldwide web vote.

Egypt views the entire idea as an affront to the pyramids. "They are the only one of the seven wonders that still exists," said Egypt's antiquities chief. "They don't need to be put to a vote." But there are some pretty wondrous wonders on the new list--like the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, the Acropolis, the Statue of Liberty, and Stonehenge.

We'll tell you how to register your own vote for the "New Seven Wonders" below. But first, we have to ask you, can you name the old seven wonders? Knowing them just might sway your vote for today's short list. Let's see, after the Pyramids of Giza come the . . .

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Bible readers know Nebuchadnezzar II as the king who, in 587 BC, destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem and forced the Jews into exile in Babylonia. But ancient tourists knew him as the man behind Babylon's Hanging Gardens. Built around 600 BC, the gardens grew on the roof of a terraced structure within his palace walls, irrigated by pumps that drew water up from the Euphrates. Today, Babylon is a ruin near Baghdad, and no definitive trace of the gardens has ever been found.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

The Ephesians erected their great temple for Apollo's twin sister Artemis around 550 BC. They rebuilt it after 356 BC, when a terrorist bent on fame set it ablaze. Located in today's Turkey, across the Aegean Sea from Athens, the temple drew many Greeks bearing gifts. They marveled at its size--imagine a football field surrounded by marble--and at the art inside. Little remains of the temple today, just fragments at the site and in museums.

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

When Olympia, home of the Olympic Games in western Greece, beheld the Temple of Artemis, its citizens said, "We'll see your Artemis and raise you a statue of Zeus." By 435 BC, the famed Greek sculptor Phidias was pounding the last plates of gold and ivory into place on a 40-foot (12-meter) statue of Zeus, seated on a cedarwood throne. No one knows what became of the thunder god's likeness, but we have found the workshop Phidias used to make it.

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

South of Ephesus, at Halicarnassus, ruled Mausolus, a Persian satrap who admired the Greek way of life. So, when Mausolus died in 353 BC, his sister-widow-queen, Artemisia, built him the most opulent Greek tomb around. It was 135 feet (40 meters) tall, adorned on every side with sculpture, and capped with a pyramidal roof. An earthquake brought the tomb down in medieval times, and Mausolus's memory now survives mainly in the word mausoleum.

Colossus of Rhodes

On the Greek island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean Sea, workers made wonder out of war. An army had besieged the island's capital. But Rhodes resisted for a year, and the army left. So the Rhodians reforged the army's abandoned bronze and iron weapons and sold its siege equipment to make a colossus: a 110-foot (34-meter) statue of the sun god Helios. By 280 BC, it stood tall on a marble pedestal near the harbor--until an earthquake toppled it just 56 years later.

Lighthouse of Alexandria

In the Egyptian port of Alexandria, few would have been overawed by Rhodes's colossus. For in Alexandria's harbor, on a small island named Pharos, stood the original lighthouse. It was made around the same time as Rhodes's statue, but dwarfed it. It stood 384 feet (117 meters) high--some say higher. Fires burned at the top at night, and bronze mirrors reflected sunlight during the day. It stood until the 14th century, when earthquakes ruined it, too.

Pyramids of Giza

Of course, we've already mentioned Egypt's three Pyramids of Giza, the only ancient wonder still standing today. But they are in a class by themselves in practically every other way as well. The largest and oldest of the three, the Great Pyramid, was built for the pharaoh Khufu (called Cheops by the Greeks) in the 26th century BC. That makes it 2,000 years older than any other wonder on the list.

The Great Pyramid climbs more than 450 feet (138 meters) into the sky--high enough to make it the tallest structure on Earth for almost 4,000 years, until European cathedrals started reaching for heaven. It's made up of about 2.3 million massive blocks of stone, weighing perhaps 6 million tons all told. Some have described it as "the most colossal single building ever erected on the planet." Now that's a wonder for any list, old or new.]]> (Administrator) Articles Mon, 01 Dec 2008 00:47:16 +0000